Annex A - Group Research Proposal

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Owen Tee, Justin Lim, Moon Gijoo, Wong Kang
Class: S2-02
Group Reference: F


1.    Indicate the type  of research that you are adopting:


[            ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research


[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)


[      x    ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)


[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics


[ ] Observational and exploratory research


[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic:


Ttle of Research:
Investigation of the effect of surface area of the nails  on the max force the balloon can hold before popping.


A.    Question being addressed
:


Rubber and Its Uses:
Rubber, in one form or another has been used since the times of old, evidence of its use going back 2,000,000 years or more. In those days the substance was derived naturally from the rubber tree. Individuals would then use it to make balls, and to waterproof handmade buckets, pails and more. As time went on more and more uses for rubber was discovered inspiring the invention of synthetic rubber because the natural alternative could not keep up with the growing demand. Every year an approximated 4 million tons of natural rubber and 7 million tons of synthetic rubber are produced to make more than 50,000 different products that we use on a daily basis worldwide.
Natural rubber production begins with the tapping of the matured rubber trees of South East Asia and Africa. Workers tap the trees by making an incision which cause the slow flow of the milky fluid called latex, after enough of the latex is collected in pails the water is then removed from it and the latex is then turned into raw rubber. There are approximately twenty different types of synthetic rubber used today including silicone rubber,acrylic rubber and butyl rubber. the production of this type of rubber consists of the adding of materials like petroleum, crude oil and different types of gases.
Today, rubber is as widely used as wood and this is largely due to its beneficial properties like strength, long lasting, water resistance and heat resistance all these benefits makes this material perfect for tire production, in fact a large percentage of rubber production goes into the automotive industry. Other benefits like being non slip, soft, durable, resilient makes this material the first choice for playground equipment, shoes, mats, flooring, healthcare supplies, household supplies, balls, toys and thousands of other rubber products. Rubber comes in a large variety of colors, styles and textures making it extremely diverse. Used rubber tires are often recycled to make other items like mulch, shoes, bags, jewelry and coats. It is safe and reliable and seen as a valuable material by many.


  Rubber Balloons and Its Uses:


Balloons are used in healthcare, such as Angioplasty balloons.The key requirements of angioplasty balloons are strength and flexibility. The next generation of balloon technology used a polymer known as cross-linked polyethylene.These Angioplasty balloons help patients to widen their arteries and veins,typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.


Formula for Pressure:
P=F/A
Mass of which the balloon can take, which is the max force, represents F.
The number of equally spaced nails represent A.
 
Question:
With so many uses of rubber and rubber balloons,will high amounts of pressure cause it to break?
Does the surface area affect its durability?



VARIABLES:
  • The independent variable is the number of nails.
  • The dependent variable is the maximum mass needed for the balloon to pop
  • The constants are the volume of air inside the balloon,orientation of the balloon placed on the nails, type of balloon, height of nails cannot change and how far apart the nails are placed.


B.    Hypotheses
:


When the surface area of the nails decreases, a lesser force is needed to burst the balloon. If there is an increase of surface area of the nails, a greater  force is needed to burst the balloon.


C.   Method and Procedures:


Equipment list:
  • 1 Air pump
  • Books and papers (10 math,geography,science textbooks)
  • Drill
  • Hammer
  • Weighing Scale (2100g-0.01g)
  • Drill stand
  • Thick industrial gloves
Material List:
  • 3 Wooden Planks(9.5" x 4.5")
  • Nails (About 120)
  • Balloons (About 50)
  • 4 Wooden Rods ½ inch in diameter
  • Stack of paper
  • 2 pieces of cardboard 30cm by 30cm
Procedures:
  1. In the center of one wooden plank drill 95 holes large enough for the nails to fit through keeping them ½ inch apart. Also drill 4 holes partially through at the corners the board large enough for the wooden rods  to fit into at each each end of the plank.Photo on 22-1-15 at 6.45 pm.jpg
  2. Drill 4 holes at the corners for the wooden rods to be placed in in the second board, this time drill completely through the plank. 20150117_213144.jpg
  3. Place the first five nails into the holes in the first boardScreen Shot 2015-01-17 at 8.54.33 pm.png
  4. Nail the dowel into the first board.
                                  
  1. Insert the wooden rods and place the second board over the top.Screen Shot 2015-01-17 at 9.37.06 pm.png
  2. Next get 2 pieces of cardboard. In one piece of the cardboard, cut a circle with a diameter of 20cm. And cut a circle with a diameter or 30cm


Photo on 22-1-15 at 8.50 pm.jpg

















  1. Pump air into the balloon such then when placed vertically, it it would pass through the 20cm cardboard just nicely without any gap. Also pump until when place horizontally through the 30cm cardboard, it passes just nicely without any gaps.  Photo on 22-1-15 at 7.23 pm #2.jpg  
  2. Place balloon in between the nails and the board. Place it horizontally.


  1. Place stacks of paper and books on the board above the balloon, until  the balloon pops.When the balloon pops,measure the weight of the books and paper, that will be its maximum weight. Photo on 22-1-15 at 8.56 pm #2.jpg
  2. After each time the balloon pops, add 5 more nails and repeat step 9.
  3. Record down all the maximum weight per number of nails and plot a graph
Photo on 22-1-15 at 8.49 pm.jpg


Risk and Safety:


Risk 1:
Injuries by nails. When handling the sharp nails, some of them could be rusty or be un sanitized. When pricked, we could develop an infection called tetanus infection, as infections occurs through wound contamination from a cut or puncture wound.  Tetanus infection can be life threatening when not treated early. You can get muscle spasms developed in the jaw and other parts of the body. By the time you get these symptoms it might be too late already.


Safety Measurement 1:
We can buy nails from a trusted hardware shop which doesn’t just remove rust from nails picked up from construction sites. Or wear thick industrial gloves which will prevent us from getting pricked easily by the nails.


Risk 2:
Getting injured by the drill. The drill has a sharp pointed metal tip, when in contact with bare skin, it can easily tear through it. So if we get in contact with the pointed tip, we could bleed profusely, leading to blood loss. When drilling, if the metal tip is not fasten properly, it could get loose and cut you. Or in the worst case scenario get lodge into some part of your body.


Safety Measurement 2:
When using the drill we will use a drill clamp to ensure the drill is properly secured and also ensure the drill bit is tightened to prevent it from flying off.


Risk 3:
When drilling into woods, there are wood fillings, and if there is a strong gust of wind, the wood fillings can fly and centre our eyes. Distracting us and making it very dangerous to be using a drill as we will be trying to get it out but also have to focus on the drill.


Safety Measurement 3:
Ensure that we are wearing safety glasses and use a drill clamp if not confident in using the drill.


Data Analysis:
We will keep adding books and papers onto the plank squeezing the balloon and measure the amount of mass used when it pops as that is its maximum weight it could take with that amount of nails. Next we will decrease the number of nails used as that will reduce the surface area or the nails and reduce the amount of mass used and repeat the steps and continue to plot the chart. once finished with the chart, we will be able to conclude if the surface area does affect the pressure. And find out if increasing the surface area does make tyres more durable.


D. Bibliography:







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