Introduction

Rubber, in one form or another has been used since the times of old, evidence of its use going back 2,000,000 years or more. In those days the substance was derived naturally from the rubber tree. Individuals would then use it to make balls, and to waterproof handmade buckets, pails and more. As time went on more and more uses for rubber was discovered inspiring the invention of synthetic rubber because the natural alternative could not keep up with the growing demand. Every year an approximated 4 million tons of natural rubber and 7 million tons of synthetic rubber are produced to make more than 50,000 different products that we use on a daily basis worldwide.

Natural rubber production begins with the tapping of the matured rubber trees of South East Asia and Africa. Workers tap the trees by making an incision which cause the slow flow of the milky fluid called latex, after enough of the latex is collected in pails the water is then removed from it and the latex is then turned into raw rubber. There are approximately twenty different types of synthetic rubber used today including silicone rubber,acrylic rubber and butyl rubber. the production of this type of rubber consists of the adding of materials like petroleum, crude oil and different types of gases.

Today, rubber is as widely used as wood and this is largely due to its beneficial properties like strength, long lasting, water resistance and heat resistance all these benefits makes this material perfect for tire production, in fact a large percentage of rubber production goes into the automotive industry. Other benefits like being non slip, soft, durable, resilient makes this material the first choice for playground equipment, shoes, mats, flooring, healthcare supplies, household supplies, balls, toys and thousands of other rubber products. Rubber comes in a large variety of colours, styles and textures making it extremely diverse. Used rubber tires are often recycled to make other items like mulch, shoes, bags, jewellery and coats. It is safe and reliable and seen as a valuable material by many. 
(Quoted from Polymer-Search. (2012).Many Uses of Rubber.Retrieved January 22, 2015,fromhttp://www.polymer-search.com/rubber.html)

Balloons are used in healthcare, such as Angioplasty balloons.The key requirements of angioplasty balloons are strength and flexibility. The next generation of balloon technology used a polymer known as cross-linked polyethylene.These Angioplasty balloons help patients to widen their arteries and veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. (Quoted from How Products Are Made. (n.d.).Volume 6 Retrieved January 17, 2015, fromhttp://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Angioplasty-Balloon.html 

Research Questions

1. How to make a hologram.
2. How to measure distance & speed of a rolling object from video recordings.
3. How to measure sugar content of a liquid with a laser pointer.
With so many uses of rubber and rubber balloons,will high amounts of pressure case it to break? Does the surface area affect its durability?
Title:
Investigation of the effect of surface area of the nails on the max force the balloon can hold before popping.

Hypothesis:
When the surface area of the nails decreases, a lesser force is needed to burst the balloon. If there is an increase of surface area of the nails, a greater force is needed to burst the balloon.

Independent Variable:
- Number of nails.

Dependent Variable:
- Maximum mass needed for the balloon to burst, in grams.

Constant:
- Volume of air inside each balloon.
- Orientation of balloons placed on the nails.
- Type of ballon.
- Height/Type of nails.
- The interval between each nails.

Formula for Finding the Pressure: P = F/A
P = Pressure
F = Force
A = Area



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